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Weed Management

Weed Management

  • A great overview of weed identification and control. Presentation focuses on type and timing of herbicide use, mostly targeting herbaceous species.

  • Presentation from Mark (Sparky) Taber with the Grand Junction BLM at the 2016 Tamarisk Coalition conference on applied restoration techniques using machinery.

  • This list of chemical weed mix recommendations was produced by Weld County, Colorado.

  • Authors: Anna A. Shera, Hisham El Waera, Eduardo Gonzáleza,b, Robert Andersona, Annie L. Henrya, Robert Biedrona, PengPeng Yuea

    This report includes a comprehensive and detailed analysis of the vegetation response to a single watershed-scale restoration effort that includes 40 sites along the Dolores River from 2010-2014.

  • This paper presents results of research on total insect abundance in both invasive and native dominated riparian areas.

  • This USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service website provides info on weed risk assessments completed to date. They are provided for interested stakeholders and may be useful in setting local policies or for informing resource managers. 

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    Prepared by the RiversEdge West (formerly Tamarisk Coalition) in 2008, this document addresses options for the control, biomass reduction, and revegetation management components. All currently available technologies have been evaluated; however, not all are applicable for a given river location. Tamarisk is the focus of this document’s control component because it is the principle non-native phreatophyte in western watersheds. In general, the following discussion applies to Russian olive and other invasive trees but may differ slightly for each (e.g., herbicide used).
     
  • The Pesticide Product and Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels  that have been accepted by EPA under Section 3 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA).  
  • The proposed action includes the removal (hand cutting and herbicide treatment) of existing and potential arundo (Arundo donax) plants at 11sites (915 acres) located along the Virgin River in Washington County, Utah. The proposal also includes the removal (hand cutting and herbicide treatment) of existing Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) and tamarisk (Tamarisk Species) trees at three sites (170 acres) near Rockville, Utah and Washington, Utah. Removal of these exotic invasive species would improve habitat conditions for woundfin (Plagopterus argentissimus, Federally Endangered), Virgin River chub (Gila seminuda, Federally Endangered), Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus, Federally Endangered), Yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus occidintalis, Federal Candidate Species), several BLM Sensitive species and other wildlife species along the river.
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    Local Southwest Utah Partnership Engages Youth to Mitigate Flood Damage, Control Invasive Species, and Restore Native Habitat
     
    Wesley Pickett1*, Ian Torrence2, Aaron Wilson3
     
    1American Conservation Experience, Hurricane, UT, USA; wpickett@usaconservation.org
    2American Conservation Experience, Flagstaff, AZ, USA; itorrence@usaconservation.org
    3American Conservation Experience, Hurricane, UT, USA; awilson@usaconservation.org
     
     
    American Conservation Experience (ACE), a non-profit service organization, provides its young and diverse members with career-building opportunities in the field of restoration through education and hands-on experience. Facilitation of member growth comes partly through the organization's commitment to partners with like-minded federal, state, local, and non-profit land agencies and organizations that assist with member guidance and mentorship. Since the fall of 2014, ACE crews, based out of Hurricane, Utah, worked in conjunction with the Washington County Flood Control Authority (WCFCA). In August of 2012 Washington County, the City of St. George, Washington City, and Santa Clara City entered into an inter-local agency cooperative agreement establishing the Washington County Flood Control Authority.  The purpose of the Flood Control Authority (FCA) is to better share management, administration, and cost responsibilities for regional stormwater drainage and flood control concerns that cross common community boundaries. Projects that were completed under WCFCA guidance engaged youth crews in restoring riparian ecosystems around the Virgin and Santa Clara Rivers while protecting residential and commercial infrastructure in Washington County from potentially future devastating flooding events.
     
    Crews surveyed for salt cedar (Tamarix spp.), Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia), giant reed (Arundo donax), flood debris piles, and damaged infrastructure (like gabion baskets and bridges). This work provided the WCFCA data on areas of infrastructural concern and highlighted priority areas for invasive species removal. ACE crews controlled salt cedar, Russian olive, and giant reed along the riparian corridors of the Virgin and Santa Clara Rivers by mechanical and chemical means. Additionally, along the Santa Clara River, ACE crews revegetated with native plant species in an area that was once clogged with vegetation and beaver dams and was previously at risk for flooding during high water events.
     
    Through monitoring, invasive plant control, and planting native species, ACE’s members played a critical role in the long term ecological restoration in Washington County’s Virgin and Santa Clara River corridors. Completing this work, in partnership with a local organization, advanced members’ restoration experience, knowledge, and skills through hands-on career-building opportunities. This poster will demonstrate how meaningful partnerships provide youth from diverse backgrounds the opportunity to engage in successful restoration projects and connect invasive plant management in a wilderness setting to an urban landscape.
     
     
     
     
  • TechLine is a suite of print and online resources that provide invasive plant professionals access to new, innovative, and proven science-based information. The purpose of TechLine is to support invasive plant management programs by connecting researchers with managers of federal, state, county, and private lands so they may share the successes of their programs, techniques, and methods and learn from one another. 

  • A matrix developed by Tina Booton of Weld County for application rates and weed species treated by certain chemicals. 2019 version. 

  • A presentation by Dr. Anna Sher on Weed Control and Native Plant Community Recovery after Tamarix Removal by Three Methods Over Five Years: Findings of Monitoring 40 Sites of the Dolores River Restoration Partnership.  Presented at Tamarisk Coalition's 2016 Conference.

  • This attachment includes range and pasture chemical recommendations. These recommendations were produced by Weld County, Colorado.

  • This resource provides guidelines on treating woody invaives and secondary weeds with the recommended timing and type of herbicide.
     
    Developed by Fremont County Weed Management for Fremont, Custer, & Surrounding Counties
    April 2015
     
    Please see Fremont County Weed Control’s booklet, “Guideline for Weed Management Plans” for more details such as herbicide rates and specifics about weed control methods.
  • Yellow and Caucasian bluestems are introduced bunchgrass species that are becoming invasive in southwestern States after successfully invading the Central and Southern Great Plains. This field guide serves as the U.S. Forest Service’s recommendations for management of yellow and Caucasian bluestems in forests, woodlands, rangelands, desert, and desert scrub associated with its Southwestern Region. TheSouthwestern Region covers Arizona and New Mexico, which together have 11 national forests. The Region also administers 4 national grasslands located in northeastern New Mexico, western Oklahoma, and the Texas panhandle.

  • The New Mexico Department of Game and Fish has published a new handbook for Habitat Restoration and Management of Native and Non-native Trees in Southwestern Riparian Ecosystems. This Handbook addresses wildlife use of non-native riparian habitats, including tamarisk, Russian olive, and Siberian elm. It also provides recommendations for restoration of riparian habitats following chemical, mechanical, and/or biological control of non-native trees. This handbook is available as an attachment to this email and will also be posted at http://www.wildlife.state.nm.us/conservation/habitat-information/habitat... along with other guidelines for minimizing impacts of specific land use practices on wildlife and wildlife habitats.

  • This paper presents finding from several years of research along the Rio Grande examining the effects of woody invasives treatments on vertebrates. 

  • This document provides photos and characterists of the Colorado Watch List species. 

  • Click the link above to access the Russian knapweed fact sheet produced by Colorado State University Extension.

  • This field guide serves as the U.S. Forest Service's recommendations for management of tamarisk in the Southwestern US. 

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    Choked Out: Battling Invasive Giant Cane (Arundo Donax) Along the Rio Grande/Bravo Borderlands
     
    Mark Briggs1*, Helen M. Poulos2, Jeff Renfrow3, Javier Ochoa-Espinoza4, David Larson5, Patty Manning6, and Joe Sirotnak7, Kelon Crawford8
     
    1RiversEdge West, Tucson, AZ; mbriggs@riversedgewest.org; markkbriggs@gmail.com; (520) 548-4045
    2Wesleyan University
    3Rio Grande Scientific Support Services
    4Comisión Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas
    5Big Bend National Park
    6Sul Ross State University (retired)
    7Bureau of Land Management
    8Rio Grande Scientific Support Services
     
     
    Biological invasions have myriad negative impacts on native biota and human livelihoods, worldwide. Along the U.S.-Mexico border, giant cane (Arundo donax), an aggressive non-native grass, grows in dense, nearly impenetrable stands along hundreds of kilometers of the Rio Grande/Bravo (RGB). Between 2008 and 2018, a diverse, multisector binational-team treated giant cane along 90 Km of this binational stretch of the river to improve aquatic and riparian conditions for native species as well as to enhance river access for riverside citizens and visitors. Monitoring of riparian plant cover over a ten-year period reveal significant reduction in giant cane cover and recovery of native woody riparian plant taxa.  However, continued management and monitoring is needed to better understand the long-term efficacy of this effort. As part of our presentation, we will highlight:
    • The methods used to manage giant cane;
    • The debate – Central points that our binational team discussed as part of making the decision to move forward with a concerted effort to manage giant cane;
    • Results: In addition to highlighting results of long-term riparian vegetation monitoring, we will also discuss other general takeaways from this work, including impacts of giant cane management on channel morphology, site conditions that appear to have a strong bearing on the effectiveness of management actions, working binationally, and the introduction of biologic agents to manage giant cane.
    • Taking stock as we look to the future.
     
     
     
  • The intent of this user’s guide is to provide groups interested in setting up a viable prevention program in their area with the steps and resources to initiate and develop a weed prevention area (WPA).

Woody Invasives

Field Guides

Secondary Weeds

  • The 2016 Compendium of Herbicide Adjuvants is the 13th edition of the biennial publication and contains 779 entries from 38 companies. While the Compendium of Herbicide Adjuvants is published every two years, the associated website is updated more frequently. This Compendium organizes adjuvant products by type (such as nonionic surfactants, crop oil concentrates, etc.). And each listing includes the product name, manufacturer/distributor, principal functioning agents, use rates, and comments. 

  • While focused on Victoria, Australia, this guide provides any restoration practitioner with helpful information on highly efficient and cost effective revegetation methods. This publication aims to provide the practical 'know how' to help carry out your revegetation from start to finish. Section A covers the steps involved in a revegetation program, from planning and preparation to monitoring.
  • The proposed action includes the removal (hand cutting and herbicide treatment) of existing and potential arundo (Arundo donax) plants at 11sites (915 acres) located along the Virgin River in Washington County, Utah. The proposal also includes the removal (hand cutting and herbicide treatment) of existing Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) and tamarisk (Tamarisk Species) trees at three sites (170 acres) near Rockville, Utah and Washington, Utah. Removal of these exotic invasive species would improve habitat conditions for woundfin (Plagopterus argentissimus, Federally Endangered), Virgin River chub (Gila seminuda, Federally Endangered), Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus, Federally Endangered), Yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus occidintalis, Federal Candidate Species), several BLM Sensitive species and other wildlife species along the river.
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    The Western Governors’ Association (WGA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), under a Shared Stewardship Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), agreed in June 2019 to pursue an effort to meaningfully address the large-scale infestation of invasive annual grasses on western forests and rangelands. The spread of invasive annual grasses – such as cheatgrass, medusahead and ventenata – is causing major damage to western working lands. To date, many control efforts have been reactive, focusing on highly infested areas where control is more expensive and has a lower likelihood of success.
     
    One product of this effort is a new toolkit for land managers working to combat the spread of invasive annual grasses in the West. The toolkit is comprised of three elements:
    • A roadmap for invasive grass management in the West, with new best management practices for the identification, protection, and expansion of “core” areas – regions with relatively low, or no, annual grass invasion;
    • Case studies highlighting the application of these practices in Idaho and Wyoming; and
    • A new geospatial data layer (which uses analytical tools to compile existing federal data) to help state and local managers assess invasive annual grasses within their jurisdictions, while also offering opportunities to identify new cross-boundary collaborative projects.
     
    The roadmap and data layer are designed for easy integration into local management plans and can be tailored by state and local managers to reflect local data, knowledge, capacities and priorities.
  • This document describes steps that can be taken to control Arundo donax (also known as giant reed, giant cane, and arundo) in the Virgin River Watershed and Washington County, Utah.
     
  • Click the link above to access the Russian knapweed fact sheet produced by Colorado State University Extension.

  • This resource provides guidelines on treating woody invaives and secondary weeds with the recommended timing and type of herbicide.
     
    Developed by Fremont County Weed Management for Fremont, Custer, & Surrounding Counties
    April 2015
     
    Please see Fremont County Weed Control’s booklet, “Guideline for Weed Management Plans” for more details such as herbicide rates and specifics about weed control methods.
  •  
     
     
    Choked Out: Battling Invasive Giant Cane (Arundo Donax) Along the Rio Grande/Bravo Borderlands
     
    Mark Briggs1*, Helen M. Poulos2, Jeff Renfrow3, Javier Ochoa-Espinoza4, David Larson5, Patty Manning6, and Joe Sirotnak7, Kelon Crawford8
     
    1RiversEdge West, Tucson, AZ; mbriggs@riversedgewest.org; markkbriggs@gmail.com; (520) 548-4045
    2Wesleyan University
    3Rio Grande Scientific Support Services
    4Comisión Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas
    5Big Bend National Park
    6Sul Ross State University (retired)
    7Bureau of Land Management
    8Rio Grande Scientific Support Services
     
     
    Biological invasions have myriad negative impacts on native biota and human livelihoods, worldwide. Along the U.S.-Mexico border, giant cane (Arundo donax), an aggressive non-native grass, grows in dense, nearly impenetrable stands along hundreds of kilometers of the Rio Grande/Bravo (RGB). Between 2008 and 2018, a diverse, multisector binational-team treated giant cane along 90 Km of this binational stretch of the river to improve aquatic and riparian conditions for native species as well as to enhance river access for riverside citizens and visitors. Monitoring of riparian plant cover over a ten-year period reveal significant reduction in giant cane cover and recovery of native woody riparian plant taxa.  However, continued management and monitoring is needed to better understand the long-term efficacy of this effort. As part of our presentation, we will highlight:
    • The methods used to manage giant cane;
    • The debate – Central points that our binational team discussed as part of making the decision to move forward with a concerted effort to manage giant cane;
    • Results: In addition to highlighting results of long-term riparian vegetation monitoring, we will also discuss other general takeaways from this work, including impacts of giant cane management on channel morphology, site conditions that appear to have a strong bearing on the effectiveness of management actions, working binationally, and the introduction of biologic agents to manage giant cane.
    • Taking stock as we look to the future.
     
     
     
  • This guide by Drs. Scott Nissen, Andrew Norton, Anna Sher, and Dan Bean offers targeted guidance on how to develop management plans, implement various control strategies, and plan restoration for treated sites. 

  • Encyclopedic in scope, this book is the first to cover North American weeds at every stage of growth. The book is organized by plant family, and more than five hundred species are featured. Each receives a two-page spread with images and text identification keys. Species are arranged within family alphabetically by scientific name, and entries include vital information on seed viability and germination requirements.

  • This website, by Agrian, allows users to look up herbicide label information from their extensive database. Over 9,000 indemnified manufacturer/registrant labels and supporting documents (including MSDS, Section 24c, 2ee, and organic certificates) are provided. 

  • This document provides photos and characterists of the Colorado Watch List species. 

  • This brochure, developed by Fremont County Weed Management, for Fremont, Custer, and surrounding counties, provides mechanical, chemical, biological and cultural control information for a variety of common weed species. 

  • This report details American Conservation Experience's efforts to treat Arundo donax along 39 miles of the Virgin River. 

  • Executive Summary
    Utah is experiencing a dramatic invasion of an aggressive European subspecies of the common
    reed (Phragmites australis subsp. australis). This invasion is threatening recreation resources,
    wildlife habitat, and native wetland ecosystems. In this study, we used genetic tools to determine
    how, and to what extent, introduced Phragmites is spreading among major Utah wetlands. We
    also assessed native Phragmites (Phragmites australis subsp. americanus) spread to put our
    introduced Phragmites results in context. In addition, we determined if native Phragmites is
    being replaced by introduced Phragmites and if the two subspecies are hybridizing. Our results
    indicate that introduced Phragmites is effectively reproducing and dispersing through both
    rhizomes and seed but compared with native Phragmites, seems to be spreading largely by seed.
    Also, we found that levels of gene flow among Utah wetlands is quite high for introduced
    Phragmites, especially compared with the limited gene flow we found among native Phragmites
    populations. We found no evidence that native and introduced Phragmites are hybridizing, even
    where they coexist. In most locations, native Phragmites is not being replaced by introduced
    Phragmites. However, at Utah Lake, both subspecies co-occur and native Phragmites may be
    replaced by introduced Phragmites if it is not already. Based on our findings we recommend: (1)
    that control and prevention efforts for introduced Phragmites should target both forms of
    dispersal but focus on seeds and (2) that managers carefully monitor locations like Utah Lake,
    where the two subspecies are co-occurring, to prevent loss of native to introduced Phragmites.
  • This field guide focuses on the most problematic weeds in northwestern North 
    America for which there are at least some biocontrol agents established. Multiple 
    photos and descriptions of each weed included in this guide emphasize key 
    identification traits and plant ecology. Comparison tables are included to further 
    aid in identification of related weed species, where applicable. For each weed 
    included in this guide, all biocontrol agents currently found in North America are 
    described individually.
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    Common Reed (Phragmites australis): Nativity and Determining Lineages Using Genetics and Field Characters in Southeastern Utah (and Parts of Southwestern Colorado)
     
    Kelli Quinn1*, Liz Ballenger2
     
    1Southeast Utah Group National Park Service, Moab, Utah, USA; kelli_quinn@nps.gov
    2Southeast Utah Group National Park Service, Moab, Utah, USA; liz_ballenger@nps.gov
     
     
    There are three lineages of common reed (Phragmites australis) recognized in North America: native lineage, American common reed (P. australis subsp. americanus); Gulf Coast lineage, subtropical common reed (P. australis subsp. berlandieri); and introduced lineage, European common reed (P. australis subsp. australis). The exotic European lineage is of concern due to its invasiveness and observations of its spread to our area of the Colorado Plateau.
     
    There are morphological traits differentiating these lineages, but field identification can be challenging. Genetic testing is the best way to confirm the correct lineage of common reed. In the late summer/ fall of 2019, we identified common reed stands based on diagnostic field characters. In spring of 2020, we will be collecting common reed tissue samples to send to a lab for genetic testing and confirm our field identification. The primary goals of this project are 1) to better refine and build confidence in the identification of common reed lineages using morphological traits in the field, and 2) gather information on the distribution of nonnative common reed populations in southeastern Utah.
     
     
     
  • This easy-to-use website site-specifically estimates spotted knapweed and leafy spurge impacts on grassland biomass production and wildlife and livestock forage.  The weed impact calculations help land managers identify appropriate weed management option for their situation.

  • This document describes the biology and management implications of reed canary grass, a rhizomatous perennial grass that is currently found in all but six of the lower 48 states.  

  • This guide provides photos of often misidentified annual weeds found in Weld County, Colorado. 

  • CDMS Website

    For a quarter of a century, CDMS has delivered the most comprehensive market access to critical agro-chemical information and decision support tools for the agricultural, turf & ornamental, and food industries.

  • This website enables users to use search functions to identify unknown weed species. 

Weed Mgmt Equip & Tools

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