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Southwestern Willow Flycatcher

Habitat Modeling

Climate and Climate Modeling

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    Ecological Genomics Predicts Climate Vulnerability in an Endangered Southwestern Songbird

                   Ruegg et al., 2018

                   A look at the potential for SWFL adaptations to rising temperatures from an ecological genomics perspective. Compared to other willow flycatcher populations results indicate small, fragmented populations of the southwestern willow flycatcher will have to adapt most to keep pace with climate change.

     

    Implications of Climate Change for Bird Conservation in the Southwestern U.S. Under Three Alternative Futures

                   Friggens and Finch, 2015

                   A Maximum Entropy presence-only habitat model developed to look at future climate-based habitat changes (2030, 2060, 2090) in the Rio Grande Corridor in NM for Lucy’s warbler, Southwestern willow flycatcher, and the Western yellow-billed cuckoo. Biophysical characteristics like distance to water proved to be more important than climate in habitat suitability predictions, but climate led to 60% declines of suitable habitat by 2090. For all species, suitable habitat tended to shrink over time within the study area leaving a few core areas of high importance. Overall, climate changes will increase habitat fragmentation and reduce breeding habitat patch size. The best strategy for conserving bird species within the Rio Grande will include measures to maintain and restore critical habitat refugia.

     

    Vulnerability of Species to Climate Change in the Southwest: Threatened, Endangered, and At-Risk Species at Fort Huachuca, Arizona

                   Bagne and Finch, 2013

                   An in-depth System for Assessing Vulnerability of Species modeling effort that looks at two dozen threatened and endangered species and how they may be affected by a changing climate. The authors provide a numerical scale of risk based on possible changes in habitat, physiology, phenology, and interactions across a scale of uncertainties. Results and discussion of the most critical factor for each species are presented.

     

    Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) Overview

                   U.S. Forest Service, 2010

                   A brief summary of three separate models run to determine SWFL future vulnerability to habitat change and fire response as well as overall adaptive capacity.

Monitoring and Monitoring Protocols

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    Bureau of Reclamation (Moore and Ahlers), March 2018
     
    A detailed analysis and discussion of flycatcher distribution and nesting along the Lower Rio Grande in New Mexico and Texas. Report notes the monitoring of 68 territories with 41 nests successfully fledging young.
     
     

    2017 Middle Rio Grande Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Study Results: Selected Sites along the Rio Grande from Bandelier National Monument to Elephant Butte Reservoir, New Mexico

    Bureau of Reclamation (Moore and Ahlers), January 2018
     
    A detailed analysis and discussion of flycatcher distribution and nesting along the Middle Rio Grande in New Mexico. Monitoring found a 15% decrease in territories, finding 302 territories containing 561 residents with an overall nesting success of 26%. Report notes that drought has led to increased dominance of tamarisk in the reach and thus increased use of lesser-quality tamarisk habitat for nesting.
     
    2015 Utah Division of Wildlife Resources Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Monitoring Report
    Utah Department of Natural Resources, May 2015
     
    Survey results and discussion of eleven flycatcher territories along the Virgin River outside St. George, Utah.
     
     
    2014 Utah Division of Wildlife Resources Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Monitoring Report
    Utah Department of Natural Resources, May 2014
     
    Survey results and discussion of thirteen flycatcher territories along the Virgin River outside St. George, Utah.
     
     
    Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) Surveys and Nest Monitoring at the upper San Luis Rey River, San Diego County Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Final Report, 2014
    Clark, et. al, February 2014
     
    Report discussing the status of the largest SWFL population in California, along the San Luis Rey River. Though limited parasitism was observed, trapping of brown-headed cowbirds was attempted and the report discusses that effort.
     
     
    2013 Utah Division of Wildlife Resources Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Monitoring Report
    Utah Department of Natural Resources, May 2013
     
    Survey results and discussion of seven flycatcher territories along the Virgin River outside St. George, Utah.
     
     
    Surveying for Southwestern Willow Flycatchers in Grand Canyon National Park, 2010-2012
    National Park Service, August 2013
     
    Survey and analysis of the declining SWFL population in the Grand after the arrival of the beetle.
     
     
    Status, Reproductive Success, and Habitat Use of Southwestern Willow Flycatchers on the Virgin River, Utah, 2008-2011
    Utah Department of Natural Resources, December 2012
     
    A detailed report chronicling the status of the Virgin River SWFL population at the height of the initial tamarisk beetle population arrival and spread.
     
     
    2012 Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Survey Results Orilla Verde Recreation Area and La Cienega Sites, New Mexico
    Bureau of Reclamation, September 2012
     
    During the summer of 2012, presence/absence surveys along approximately 9.2 kilometers of riparian corridor within the Rio Grande and Santa Fe River basins in northern New Mexico were conducted. Four migrant Willow Flycatchers were documented at the La Cienga site and none were found within the Orilla Verde Recreation site. No endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatchers were observed at either site.
     
     
    2012 Utah Division of Wildlife Resources Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Monitoring Report
    Utah Department of Natural Resources, May 2012
     
    Survey results and discussion of ten flycatcher territories along the Virgin River outside St. George, Utah.
     
     
    Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Surveys and Nest Monitoring Along the Gila River Between Coolidge Dam and South Butte, 2011
    Graber, et al., January 2012
     
    A detailed analysis and discussion of flycatcher distribution and nesting along the Gila River in Arizona in 2011. Monitoring detected 183 pairs with 274 nesting attempts at 27 sites. Of the monitored nests with known outcomes, 36% were successful with an estimated 159 young fledged. Report notes that increased streamflow in late spring the previous year had the strongest relationship to increased territories the following year.
     
     
    2011 Utah Division of Wildlife Resources Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Monitoring Report
    Utah Department of Natural Resources, May 2011
     
    Survey results and discussion of ten flycatcher territories along the Virgin River outside St. George, Utah.
     
     
    2010 Utah Division of Wildlife Resources Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Monitoring Report
    Utah Department of Natural Resources, May 2010
     
    Survey results and discussion of ten flycatcher territories along the Virgin River outside St. George, Utah.
     
     
    Virgin River Resource Management Recovery Program 2009 Annual Report: 2009 Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Nest Monitoring Study
    Utah Department of Natural Resources, 2010
     
    A short summary report of monitoring results and recommendations for population management after the arrival of tamarisk beetle into the system.
     
     
    2007 Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Study Results: Selected Sites along the Rio Grande from Velarde to Elephant Butte Reservoir, New Mexico
    Bureau of Reclamation, May 2008
     
    A detailed analysis and discussion of flycatcher distribution and nesting along the Middle Rio Grande in New Mexico. Report notes the monitoring of 232 territories successfully fledging 315 young.
     
     
    Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Final Survey and Nest Monitoring Report
    Arizona Game and Fish Department. February 2008
     
    A compilation of 10 years of survey data on Arizona populations of SWFL in the Salt River, Tonto Creek, Gila River, and San Pedro River study areas. 75% of nest were found in tamarisk but there was no significant differences in nest success in native, nonnative, and mixed habitats. “Observations at AGFD study areas demonstrate that the presence of flowing water, standing water, and saturated soil along lakes, rivers, and streams in the Southwest are important for flycatcher habitat growth and maintenance. Further, the presence of water can positively influence flycatcher recruitment and occupancy.”
     
     
    Status, Distribution, Life-history, and Habitat Affinities of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Along the Lower Colorado River – Year 7 – 2002: Final Report – Revised
    Bureau of Reclamation, January 2006
     
    Expansive report with dozens of tables and figures discussing the population of SWFL along the Lower Colorado River in great detail.
     
     
    Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Breeding Site and Territory Summary – 2004
    Sogge, et al., December 2005
     
    A comprehensive article discussing the SWFL population across its entire range.
     
    Southwestern Willow Flycatcher and Yellow-billed Cuckoo Surveys on Spur Land and Cattle Company Property, Camp Verde, AZ - 2004
    Sogge, et al., 2004
     
    Surveys finding one migrant flycatcher (subspecies unknown) and one SWFL breeding territory. A total of five YBC were detected.
     
     
    Distribution and Abundance of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher at Selected Southern California Sites in 2001 – Final Report
    Rourke, et al., 2004
     
    A detailed analysis to document flycatcher distribution and abundance at 20 sites on 15 drainages in southern California in 2001. Surveys located 21 breeding pairs which when combined with other survey data suggest 146 pairs in California, a doubling of the population since 1993.
     
     
    Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii) Surveys in the Colorado River Delta: Implications for Management
    Hernandez, et al., 2001
     
    Article documenting the population of SWFL in the Colorado River Delta in Mexico and discussing the need for future restoration of sites to maintain the species.
     
     
     

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