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Habitat Restoration



    Determining Factors of Cottonwood Planting Survival in a Desert River Restoration Project

                Laub et al., 2019

                A study that planted 474 trees and measured their growth characteristics for more than a year. Logistic regression was used to evaluate whether tree height, elevation above the river channel, distance to existing cottonwood or coyote willow, soil conductivity, soil texture, planting depth, planting method (mechanical auger vs. hand-digging), and provision of natural and commercial supplements affected survival probability. The authors found that survival probability was greater in auger-dug than hand-dug holes and increased with elevation above the river channel bottom. Survival was lower in sandier soils and in soils with higher salinity.           


    Using Conspecific Broadcast for Willow Flycatcher Restoration

                Schofield et al., 2018

                A study which utilized broadcasting SWFL vocalizations in suitable but unoccupied habitat in an attempt to attract occupants. Results found that 36% of the unoccupied territories in which they utilized this technique subsequently had willow flycatchers present as opposed to 5% of the control sites. Results demonstrated that this technique could be an effective strategy for restoring SWFL to suitable but unoccupied territories.


    Native Species Recovery After Reduction of an Invasive Tree by Biological Control With and Without Active Removal

                Sher et al., 2018

                A study which sampled 40 sites over a five-year period to determine changes in tamarisk cover and native plant communities. The researchers found that with or without active removal of tamarisk the native understory increased, though the best response involved active removal of tamarisk without high-disturbance mechanical control. Results showed that reduction of tamarisk cover, even just by biological control leaving some canopy intact, can facilitate the recovery of native plant communities.


    Species Introductions and Their Cascading Impacts on Biotic Interactions in Desert Riparian Ecosystems

                Hultine et al., 2015

                A paper which looks at the disruption of the mutualistic relationship between Populus spp. and beneficial mychorrhizal fungal communities caused by Tamarix spp. and how this may be affected by tamarisk beetles. The authors postulate that certain genotypes of Populus will respond more favorably to changes in climate and the presence of tamarisk over time, that the continued expansion of beetle populations and increased defoliation will reduce this negative impact of Tamarix but the plants may adapt to episodic defoliation, and riparian land managers should work to identify and conserve the phenotypic traits in Populus that underpin tolerance to climate changes and species invasion.   


    Beyond Traditional Ecological Restoration on the Colorado Plateau

                Winkler et al., 2018

                An analysis of past restoration projects to determine the best project characteristics for successful future restoration efforts. Authors determined that strong multi-agency and stakeholder partnerships, mitigating for climate change, and the use of genetically diverse seed adapted for current and future conditions are the most important factors for restoration.


    Habitat Restoration and Management of Native and Non-native Trees in Southwestern Riparian Ecosystems (presentation)

                Volke (New Mexico Department of Game and Fish), 2018

                A PowerPoint presentation provided at RiversEdge West’s Riparian Restoration Conference detailing the resource provided in the next entry, with case studies in New Mexico.


    Habitat Restoration and Management of Native and Non-native Trees in Southwestern Riparian Ecosystems

                New Mexico Department of Game and Fish, 2017

                A handbook compiling information from various sources and providing general guidance for removing non-native woody vegetation to provide better habitat for native species, focusing on birds.


    Case Studies of Riparian and Watershed Restoration in the Southwestern United States—Principles, Challenges, and Successes

                Ralston and Saar, 2017

                Proceedings of a three-day workshop convened by the USGS Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center in Flagstaff, AZ in June 2015 to discuss the challenges and successes of riparian restoration projects in the Southwest. This is an excellent compilation of presentations ranging from a planning articles (Rasmussen and Orr; Skidmore) to a climate and genetics (Whitam) to project implementation (Oppenheimer; Grabau; McMaster).


    Tamarisk Best Management Practices in Colorado Watersheds

                Nissen et al. (eds.), 2012

                Produced by Colorado State University, the University of Denver, the Colorado Department of Agriculture, and the Denver Botanic Gardens, this is a detailed and comprehensive resource for restoring tamarisk-invaded lands in Colorado that can be utilized throughout the Southwest.


    Best Management Practices for Revegetation after Tamarisk Removal

                Sher et al., 2010

                A comprehensive guide for restoration and revegetation after tamarisk removal. Contains recommendations for planning and implementation, equipment, species lists, monitoring and maintenance, and adaptive management.


    Cost/Benefit Considerations for Recent Saltcedar Control, Middle Pecos River, New Mexico

                Barz et al., 2008

                An analysis of a very large-scale tamarisk removal project on the Middle Pecos River looking at actual project costs as measured against a valuation of salvaged ET recharged groundwater. The paper focuses on trade-offs under a complete eradication strategy: water salvage vs. erosion and sedimentation within a specific system. Total costs far outweighed benefits in this simple comparison but highlight the need to consider desired outcomes and project purpose in light of overall costs.


    Success of Active Revegetation after Tamarix Removal in Riparian Ecosystems of the Southwestern United States: A Quantitative Assessment of Past Restoration Projects

                Bay and Sher, 2008

                An analysis of 28 sites where tamarisk had been removed a range of 1-18 years prior and a determination of multiple management techniques and site characteristics that led to restoration success. Results found that proximity to perennial water, recent flooding, good drainage, coarser soils texture, and lower soil pH all favored native species.


    Riparian Restoration: Assessment of Alternative Technologies for Tamarisk Control, Biomass Reduction and Revegetation.

                RiversEdge West (Tamarisk Coalition), 2008

                Prepared by the RiversEdge West (formerly Tamarisk Coalition) in 2008, this document addresses options for the control, biomass reduction, and revegetation management components. All (in 2008) currently available technologies have been evaluated; however, not all are applicable for a given river location. Tamarisk is the focus but the discussion applies to Russian olive and other invasive trees but may differ slightly for each (e.g., herbicide used).


    Planning Riparian Restoration in the Context of Tamarix Control in Western North America

    Shafroth et al., 2008

    A seminal paper in tamarisk restoration that stresses the importance of project planning to include: (1) clearly identifying project goals; (2) developing realistic project objectives based on a detailed evaluation of site conditions; (3) prioritizing and selecting tamarisk control sites with the best chance of ecological recovery; and (4) developing a detailed tactical plan before tamarisk is removed. Post-removal monitoring, maintenance, and adaptive management are also highlighted as crucial for evaluating project success and efficacious restoration methods.



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